If you’re using LPD8806 LED strips and you can’t use the hardware SPI port (e.g., when using an Ethernet board), there are two other options in the Adafruit library: the default mode and ‘slowmo’ mode. The default mode is decent, but the flexibility of being able to choose the pins at runtime comes with a cost.
However, you can still get a decent speedup by defining your pin usage at compile time in a replacement show() function. I measured the time required to update an 86 LED strip using each method on an EtherTen board (Atmega328 @ 16 MHz, same as the Uno):
30.23 ms - Adafruit 'slowmo' method (digitalWrite)
7.76 ms - Adafruit default method (port pointers)
1.54 ms - Compile-time method
1.43 ms - Adafruit hardware SPI method